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Abstracts from the 3rd Annual NSPI "Chemistry in the Pool/Spa Environment" Symposium

Sponsored by:

The National Spa and Pool Institute

with additional sponsorship by:

Autopilot Systems, Inc.

Balboa Instruments, Inc.

BioLab, Inc.

Buckman Laboratories

Church and Dwight

Construction Technologies Laboratories

DEL Industries


Environmental Test Systems

Hasa, Inc.

Journal of the Swimming Pool and Spa Industry

LaPorte Water Technologies

Muskin Leisure Products

Occidental Chemical Corp.

Pool Chlor

PPG Industries, Inc.


Zodiac North American Pool Care Sector



Ken Hughes, Ph.D.

Kennesaw State University

Statistical Analysis of Experimental Data


Joe Grenier

Zodiac North American Pool Care Sector

Bacteria Test Kits


Roy Vore, Ph.D.


Public Health and Recreational Water Today: A Legacy of 19th Century Standards


Everett Nichols, Ph.D.


Monitoring and Managing Phosphates in Swimming Pools for Optimum Algae Control

Algae growth in pools can be a persistent and annoying problem. Two significant elements that contribute to algae growth are phosphorous and nitrogen. Phosphorous is usually the “limiting nutrient” compared to carbon and nitrogen. Reducing phosphates in pool water can be an effective means to controlling algae growth. Managing phosphate levels in pool water and monitoring phosphate concentrations will be discussed.

Neil Lowry, Ph.D.

Lowry and Associates

Tom Seechuk

LaMotte Company

Errors in DPD Testing and Other Parameters


John A. Wojtowicz


Fate of Nitrogen Compounds in Swimming Pool Water

Nitrogen compounds (ammonia, urea, amino acids, hippuric acid, creatinine, creatine, and uric acid) in urine and sweat from bathers are the principle source of swimming pool and spa contaminants. These nitrogen compounds cause problems in chlorine sanitized pools because they form combined chlorine compounds which are poor disinfectants compared to free chlorine because they do not hydrolyze significantly to hypochlorous acid. Nitrogen compounds must be oxidized because the combined chlorine compounds that they form are not only poor disinfectants but also are nutrients for bacteria and algae. Although ammonia is readily oxidized by breakpoint chlorination, organic nitrogen compounds are oxidized by chlorine at a much slower rate. Surprisingly, urea, which is the main nitrogen contaminant in pools, does not form combined chlorine and has no apparent effect on disinfection. However, its oxidation by chlorine can lead to ammonia derived chloramines. Ammonia derived chloramines are decomposed by sunlight and therefore should be less of a problem in outdoor pools.

Fernando del Corral, Ph.D.

Buckman Laboratories

Implications and Detection of Biofilms in Recreational Water


Que Hales

Pool Chlor

Ray Denkewicz, Jr.

Zodiac North American Pool Care Sector

What’s In Your Pool? – A Snapshot of Pool Water Quality


Mary Costanzo


A Review of Methods for Testing of Cyanuric Acid Residuals in Swimming Pool Water


Alison Osinski, Ph.D.

Aquatic Consulting Services

Computer Modeling for Ozone System Sizing


Gregory Quist, Ph.D.


Rapid Identification of Waterborne Microbes


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