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Here are some of our customer technical bulletins for your perusal:
The Water Clarity Tripod
Water clarity is dependant on three facors - proper water chemistry,
sufficient and effective filtration, and good circulation. Like any tripod or
three-legged stool, the whole thing falls over when any one of the three factors
Water chemistry - If the pH or alkalinity levels are out of balance,
turbidity can be a result. Also, if there is insufficient chlorine in the water,
small, suspended algae and bacteria can result in turbid water. Any of these
problems can be readily fixed, usually in a single visit.
Filtration - The job of the filter is to remove suspended solids from the
water. These solids may be large enough to see with the naked eye, such as
leaves, twigs, and other debris. Or they may be so small that many, many of them
are required for the pool water to appear cloudy. The filter can remove any of
these solids. It cannot, however, remove from the water anything that is
actually dissolved, and thus a part of the water itself. For instance, dissolved
metals such as copper or iron can tint the water aqua or tan, but remain
dissolved and thus unfilterable (unless a chelation chemical is added to clump
the metal and take it out of solution).
The amount of time it takes for a filter to clear dirt, dead algae or
bacteria, and other suspended solids from pool water depends on the type of
filter, its maintenance, the amount of time it runs, and the circulation of the
pool. D/E filters are the most efficient (rated at being able to remove anything
larger than about 3 microns), cartridge filters are the next most efficient
(rated at about 15 to 20 microns) and sand is the least efficient (rated at
about 25 to 40 microns). If properly sized for the pool, and with everything
working right, all three are capable of maintaining a clean pool clean. However,
they may differ drastically on their abilities to clean a dirty pool.
Residential pool winter filter runs average a few hours per day (but also
running continually when there is any danger of a hard freeze), and average 10
to 12 hours during the swim season.
Circulation - In order for the filter to remove solids from all of
the water, the water must be circulated "top to bottom" and "round and round".
In most pools, this is accomplished by splitting the suction between a surface
skimmer and a bottom main drain, as well as by aiming return water in a manner
to circulate the water around the pool. Circulation patterns are drastically
affected by the shape of the pool, the locations of the drains and returns, and
the strength of the return water flow. Pools should be designed and function in
a manner which eliminates "dead spots" of uncirculated water.
THE IMPORTANCE OF "FILTERING EFFICIENCY"
In order to maintain proper water clarity, the pool water must receive
adequate filtration. Sufficient filtering time is a function of heat and usage.
While 2 to 3 hours daily is usually sufficient for the winter months, 10 to 12
hours daily is generally required during the peak summer months.
An overly dirty filter can reduce the effectiveness of your filter by up to
80%. Accordingly, you could run a dirty filter for 10 hours and receive the
equivalent of only 2 hours of "efficient" filtration.
Most filters should be backwashed when their pressure rises 8 to 10 pounds.
You should also double-check the accuracy of your filter gauge by feeling the
force of the flow of water from your return line in the pool. A weak flow means
that its time to backwash.
For those with D/E filters, you should know that backwashing only cleans the
filter grids about 50%. You're better off taking them out and washing them off,
achieving 100% cleaning. This procedure should be done early spring and
mid-summer. Also, the proper amount of D/E to add is calculated by the following
formula: A one-pound coffee can of D/E for every five square feet of filter area
(i.e., 45 sq. ft. of filter area = 9 coffee cans). Every 4 to 5 years it is wise
to acid-rinse the D/E filter grids to remove accumulated calcium deposits which
can restrict flow through the grid material. To acid-rinse the grids, fill a
large, clean plastic trash can with water, and add 1/2 gallon of regular
(muriatic) pool acid. Soak each grid for 5 to 10 minutes, and then hose them off
FOR THOSE WITH SAND AND CARTRIDGE FILTERS, YOU CAN IMPROVE YOUR FILTERING
EFFICIENCY UP TO 50% BY ADDING 2 COFFEE CANS' WORTH OF DIATOMACEOUS EARTH (D/E)
TO YOUR FILTER! This is accomplished by adding the D/E through the skimmer with
the pump on, and stirring it in the skimmer until it is totally dissolved.
Following the eventual backwashing of the filter, you may recharge the filter
with more D/E.
FOOTNOTE: D/E is a very inexpensive and relatively harmless powder available
at virtually any pool supply store. With normal usage, it will not harm grass,
TO STAIN OR NOT TO STAIN ... IS THIS AN APPROPRIATE QUESTION?
The mineral content of your water increases every day. This is due to
evaporation which removes only distilled water and leaves the minerals behind.
In time, these minerals begin depositing on the walls of the pool and we call
this gradual buildup "staining".
Among the options available to the homeowner are the following:
acid wash the pool periodically. CHEMICALLY remove these minerals before they
have a chance to deposit out on the plaster. These CHEMICALS are known as
"chelating" agents, which comes from the Latin word CHELAE which refers to the
pincer-like claws of a lobster. Accordingly, the chelating agent "grabs" these
extraneous minerals and holds on to them until they are finally removed by the
filter. MECHANICALLY remove these minerals before they have a chance to deposit
out on the plaster. The type of filter required to remove minerals and heavy
metals is called a nanofilter. It will clean the water to "bottled water purity"
without having to drain water from the pool. Once the pool water has been
cleaned with the filter, a chelating agent can be used to maintain the water in
a "soft" condition.
Acid washing prices vary tremendously from $95 to $450 for the same job. It
is always a gamble because you cannot monitor the competence of the person
performing the task. Depending on the deposits and who is trying to remove them,
you may get a better job for $95 than $450! After nearly 20 years of research,
we have developed a truly effective chelating agent. A quart per month should be
added during the summer months. Cost - $8 per quart.
An additional benefit of
using a chelating agent over acid washing is that during an acid wash, the
surface of the plaster can become somewhat "gritty" as the cement is washed off,
thus exposing the aggregate (sand) which is the primary ingredient of pool
The acid also occasionally reacts with impurities within the
plaster, thereby producing colors in the cement that are even more unsightly
than the ones which were to be eliminated in the first place. Accordingly, acid
washing is at best a calculated risk. Nanofiltration costs $120 per day. Most
pools require one and a half to two days of filtration. If done annually, one
day is enough. The filter will remove 300 to 400 ppm of calcium hardness per day
from a 15,000 gallon pool.
CHLORINE AND FILTERING can keep the water "sanitary" and crystal clear,
however, they DO NOT MANAGE OR CONTROL MINERALS OR METALS. This is a completely
separate and unique issue which requires a totally different set of
Chelating agents, nanofiltration, or the two used in conjunction are the
best form of preventive maintenance and are really inexpensive for the results
obtained. For example, four years worth of chelating agents:
$8 per quart
for 6 months per year = $48 per year x 4 years = $192
Four years of
About $180 (first year), $120 per year (next 3 years) =
Four year filtration/chelation combination:
treatment + 3 1/2 day treatments of $60 each + $96 for 1/2 normal dose of
chelating agent = $456
One acid wash every four years:
$95 to $450
(with resulting plaster degredation)
You should strongly consider chelating agents or nanofiltration as a
valuable resource for protecting your expensive backyard investment. Chelating
agents will gradually soften the water and inhibit calcium deposition,
nanofiltration will immediately soften the water, and the two in combination
will give you soft water and reduced staining.
PREVENTION OF YELLOW ALGAE
(Also sometimes referred to as brown, green or mustard algae)
The POOL CHLOR system of chemical care guarantees a crystal clear, algae
free pool. However, occasionally one of our pools will experience yellow
There are five primary reasons for yellow algae:
Yellow algae can develop
when no chlorine is present. For example, when the spa portion of a pool is
heated, the chlorine will often be completely used up. If the circulation is not
immediately restored from the pool to the spa, the spa will remain without
chlorine and algae can form. Yellow algae thrives in shade. Accordingly, a pool
cover which is seldom removed can provide a challenging environment to prevent
algae. Yellow algae can build up a resistance to chlorine and may occasionally
require an algaecide to eliminate it and prevent additional growth. Inadequate
filtration - either from filtering too short a time period OR filtering with a
dirty filter can spawn yellow algae. Most strains of yellow algae are introduced
via an airborne spore that is especially prevalent during rainy seasons. It is
therefore most common to see this type of algae immediately after rains.
WHAT CAN YOU DO TO PREVENT YELLOW ALGAE?
Immediately after using the spa, turn the valves so that the pool water will
flow into the spa for 20 minutes, thus rechlorinating the spa. Remove your pool
cover one day per week to allow the water to "breathe". Call Pool Chlor
immediately if you ever see any yellow algae so that we can take any additional
needed steps. Make sure that you are filtering an adequate number of hours for
the appropriate season. (Winter 3-4 hours, summer 7-12 hours). Also, make sure
your filter is clean and your return lines have strong water flow. After
chemical corrections, brushing the dead algae from the walls assists the filter
in removing the dead algae bodies.
Although yellow algae is approximately 90% preventable, it is 100%
The $ $ $ $ $ Advantages of the AUTOMATIC POOL CLEANER
Question: How much do you pay someone to vacuum your pool?
Answer: Usually $35.00 a month. (For example, the difference between our
chemical service and a full service is usually $30 to $40 a month).
Question: How many months would it take for an automatic cleaner to pay for
Answer: Less than a year and a half. Most cleaners cost $400 to $500.
Accordingly, $35 a month for 18 months equals $630, more enough to buy almost
Question: How much money could an automatic cleaner save you in 10
Answer: 10 years @ $35 a month = $3500.00
Question: What could you buy for $3500.00?
Answer: You decide.
Additional Benefits over a once-a-week full service cleaning: The pool is
cleaned every day instead of once a week. Even after a windy day, the pool will
be clean. Saves time because you don't have to call your full service company
and tell them that the pool is still dirty after they supposedly cleaned it. You
hedge against inflation by avoiding full-service price increases.
The proper automatic pool cleaner is cost effective and very
Call us for a free trial demonstration.
BLONDES AND GREEN HAIR
Occasionally blonde swimmers have a problem with hair discoloration after
extended swimming - the hair takes on a green deposit, sometimes referred to as
a tint. This phenomena is blamed on everything from rusty pipes to hair color
preparations to chlorine. The actual culprit, however, is almost always
Copper can be introduced to the water in many ways. The primary sources
Trace copper in the water supply Copper bleed from brass pumps or piping,
copper fittings or piping, or gas heater coils (which are solid copper) Copper
in copper-based algaecides
The green tint is not associated with either rusty pipes or pool sanitizers.
The oxidation process is similar to that of any copper object left out in the
sun and water... it makes green "copper oxide".
Actually, this problem is not unique to blondes - if the copper is present
in the water, it adheres to hair of any color. It is usually only seen on blonde
or light red hair because other hair is too dark for the deposit to be
As far as the immediate hair problem is concerned, a rinse or shampoo with a
slightly acidic pH will strip the copper deposit off of the hair. Many drug
stores carry commercial shampoo or creme rinse preparations for this purpose. If
they are not available, the home remedy is to use lemon juice or vinegar to
rinse the hair.
A long-term solution for the pool is to chelate or filter out the copper
from the water, and to see if the source (the algaecide, or copper or brass in
the system that may be deteriorating...) can be removed. Call POOL CHLOR for
more information about chelation chemistry or nanofiltration to remove the
copper from your pool water.
FIBERGLASS - THE "BLACK PLAGUE"
A common problem with fiberglass pools is that after aging they may begin to
suffer from the "black plague".
Most fiberglass pools are coated on the inside with a clear layer that is
called "gel-coat". This layer protects the fiberglass material from exposure to
water, pool chemicals, UV light, etc. Depending on the thickness and quality of
this material, it may begin to wear down after time. As tiny, invisible
"pinholes" develop in thinner, older gel-coat, water and pool chemicals can
react with cobalt in the fiberglass mixture to form a cobalt crystal. The
appearance of these crystals has nothing to do with the pool cleanliness,
sanitizers used, or other water chemistry. It is strictly related to the
product/materials of which the pool is composed.
Once these cobalt spots have begun to form, they become visible to the eye
as a dark brown or black crystal, about the size of the head of a pin. If left
alone, they slowly grow in size, and they start to develop a "rust" ring around
them. If on a vertical wall of the pool, this ring then streaks 1/2" to 1" down
from the crystal.
To remove these crystals, you can scrape them off with a butter knife or a
putty knife. The "rust" ring can be removed with a rubbing compound, or with a
mild muriatic acid/water solution (start with about 1 part acid to 10 parts
water, and slowly strengthen if needed.)
For an intermediate-term solution, commercial preparations specifically
formulated for this problem are available at most pool retailers. They carry a
variety of brand names, containing the word "cobalt" coupled with such words as
"remover" or "cure". They are usually very effective in the treatment of
cobalting, and most can be used in maintenance doses to prevent further buildup.
If the problem is especially severe, standard chelating agents may also
The long-term solution is for the pool interior to be re-coated, with newer
coatings that usually do not have this problem. This is, of course, an expensive
undertaking, reserved normally for only the most severe cases.
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS
One of the measurements that can be taken on swimming pool water is the
Total Dissolved Solids level, or TDS. TDS is a measurement of virtually
everything dissolved in the water that is not H2O. This includes such components
as salts, minerals (like calcium and magnesium), sulfates, silicates, organic
and inorganic materials, tanning lotions and oils, sweat, saliva, urine, soap,
deodorant, hair spray, colognes and perfumes, plant pollens, pet wastes, spilled
food and soft drinks, dirt, lawn and garden fertilizers, etc. Wow! There is
quite a lot of dissolved material in that water that is still clear to the human
As water evaporates from the pool, the TDS increases because the sun only
removes distilled (pure) water and leaves all of the dissolved solids behind
(like when you leave a glass of water outside to evaporate... the white crust
left behind was "dissolved solids"). The "fresh" water you then use to replace
the evaporated pure water also contains its share of dissolved solids. Normal
evaporation rates are usually up to 1/4" per day in the winter and 1/2" per day
in the summer. Therefore the water in the pool is continually getting "harder",
or higher in dissolved solid content.
High TDS can be a problem because they interfere with pH, hamper chlorine's
ability to affect bacteria and algae, create hazy water, contribute to the
corrosion of metal piping systems, and promote scale deposition on the plaster
In swimming pool applications, TDS is normally measured by means of a meter
that passes electrical current through the water. Since most anything that is
not pure water conducts electricity, and since pure distilled water does not,
the amount of electricity that passes through can be read as a level of
Tap water TDS can range from 300 to 700 parts per million TDS. The average
in swimming pools is usually 1000 to 2000 ppm. The National Spa and Pool
Institute (NSPI) recommends an upper limit of 3000 ppm.
TDS can be lowered through full or partial draining and refilling, through
the use of chelating agents, or through special nanofiltration. If you wish to
know the TDS level in your pool water, or if you are interested in chelation or
nanofiltration, please call your POOL CHLOR office.
There are three common types of algae that are prevalent in swimming pools
in the Southwest - green, mustard (or yellow), and black algae.
Black algae is different than the other two in that it "roots" into the pool
plaster, rather than floating free (like green algae) or lightly resting on the
surface (like mustard, or yellow algae). Black algae is black or extremely dark
green in color, and usually starts out as round, mossy circles varying in size
from to « inches in diameter.
Black algae is a water-borne spore, and is carried into your pool through
the "fresh" water used to fill the pool. It is not unusual to see a strip of
black algae leading from a water fill hole in the coping to the chlorinated
water in the pool - where it abruptly ends. As long as sufficient chlorine is in
the pool, the spores cannot bloom, but as soon as conditions are favorable
(i.e.: insufficient chlorine) the algae reproduces and roots.
Although mustard and green algaes are relatively simple to remove, black
algae is difficult, because of three factors: first, the mossy surface of black
algae is chlorine resistant; second, the algae grows a root system into cracks
or other imperfections in the plaster, which has to be killed to completely
eradicate the algae; and third, because a simple addition of chemicals usually
is not sufficient to accomplish these tasks: manual brushing or abrading of the
algae surface is usually required.
Methods for the removal of black algae in white plaster pools include the
Raise the chlorine level sufficiently to prevent new algae growth and to
establish a residual of chlorine in the pool. Add an algaecide specifically
designed to be effective against black algae. In our experience, silver
algaecides seem to be the most effective for this type of algae. Broadcast
granular chlorine (calcium hypochlorite or trichlor powder) on all black algae
which is on horizontal surfaces - the steps, walkouts, and the bottom. If the
chlorine powder can be made to sit directly on the algae for one or two minutes,
the algae will disappear without any further intervention. (Note that this
treatment cannot be used on certain surfaces which can be stained or bleached.
Also, calcium hypochlorite may cloud the water.) Abrade the surface or "head" of
the algae with a wire brush, a chlorine stick or tablet, a fingernail, etc. The
algae doesn't need to be completely removed - only scratched enough to allow the
chlorine (added in step 1) to penetrate the algal colony and kill the root
PURE CHLORINE: DISPELLING THE MYTHS
Gas chlorine is chlorine in its purest form, and is the base element used in
the production of all other swimming pool chlorine compounds, including tablets,
powders, and liquids. It is used extensively in water treatment throughout the
world due to its efficiency both as a sanitizing agent and as an oxidizer. Since
gas chlorine does not contain any of the salts or additives found in all other
chlorinating compounds, it does not promote the rapid buildup of these elements
in the pool water. Although most large public and semi-public pools use gas
chlorine via automatic feed systems, the use of gas chlorine in residential
swimming pool water treatment is limited to a relatively small number of
qualified pool service firms across the nation who are licensed, registered, and
specially trained in its handling and use. Gas chlorine is an EPA-registered
product, and its use has the approval of the National Spa and Pool Institute
(NSPI). Gas chlorine has been used safely and reliably in residential pool water
treatment for almost 40 years.
No other chlorinating compound can compare to gas chlorine. It is the most
efficient means of treating pool water. It significantly reduces the hardening
of water, due to its purity. But, as its use is limited to a handful of
extremely specialized pool firms, gas chlorine has the distinction of being
perhaps the least understood chemical in the swimming pool industry. This lack
of understanding has allowed a proliferation of inaccurate and misleading
statements to be disseminated regarding gas chlorine from within the swimming
pool industry itself.
The following are typical areas of misunderstanding about gas chlorine:
Myth #1: Gas chlorination is illegal.
Gas chlorination is completely legal; operations that handle gas chlorine
are required to be EPA registered, and licensed by various state and local
agencies. The actual degree of licensing and certification of gas chlorination
companies far exceeds that required for any other type of swimming pool service
Myth #2: Gas chlorination damages pools and equipment.
Absolutely not! Gas chlorine, in contrast to over-the-counter chemicals used
in pool water treatment, may only be handled by trained and knowledgeable
operators. They make it their business to use a balanced approach and
professional knowledge of their product to protect your pool and equipment. The
misuse, or improper application of any pool chemical can cause problems for the
pool owner; normal "wear and tear" on the pool surface and equipment may be
accelerated, and both metals and plaster may be affected. Please refer to the
statements from industry professionals at the end of this bulletin in reference
to the compatibility of pure chlorine with pool plaster/products. They qualify
their statements with the note that the professional will maintain the water
chemistry within accepted parameters. As with any chemical, care should be taken
to insure that the pool is balanced properly with regard to pH, alkalinity, and
hardness. As the residential use of gas chlorine is limited to specially
licensed service firms and should not be obtainable by unlicensed operators, the
potential for damage due to improper handling of gas chlorine is far less than
that of all other chlorinating compounds - which are available indiscriminately
for over-the-counter purchase, with no requirements for training or safety. When
making any chemical treatment or service decision for your pool, be sure your
service company is knowledgeable about the chemicals they use, is qualified to
handle them, and meets all local licensing requirements.
Myth #3: Since gas chlorine is acidic, it has to be bad.
Every chlorinating compound added to disinfect pool water has some effect
upon water pH and alkalinity. Since water (especially swimming pool water) is
generally alkaline in nature, it is a benefit to use a chlorine product that is
acidic, and thus offsets this alkalinity; rather than one which increases it,
thereby requiring the addition of liquid acid to avoid scaling. Gas chlorine
(the pure form of chlorine) when added to water, interacts with the acid/base
balance and can lower pH, depending upon other factors, particularly alkalinity
and hardness. This chemical reaction is the same as when muriatic acid or
trichlor tablets are used, except for the fact that the change in pH is effected
by a diffuse chemical reaction rather than the addition of concentrated
chemicals. The effervescence of the gas-created acid spreads gently and broadly
throughout a properly buffered pool, as opposed to the strong localized reaction
one creates by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid in the form of liquid
(muriatic) pool acid. Again, as with any sanitizer system, proper understanding
and maintenance of pH and alkalinity is the key to a well balanced pool. Gas
chlorinators use buffering agents (like soda ash and baking soda) to balance
your pool water and maintain proper equilibrium. This integrated "balance"
approach utilized by professional gas applicators uses all pool chemistry
factors (such as alkalinity, buffers, and hardness) and pure chemicals (rather
than compounds which contain unwanted additives) to create a total balanced
effect that never results in overly high or low pH conditions.
Myth #4: Gas chlorine is too dangerous.
Gas chlorine, like virtually all chlorinating compounds, is classified as a
hazardous material. The widespread use of gas chlorine in industry and water
treatment worldwide makes it one of the most well known chemicals in use today.
It also enjoys the distinction of having one of the finest safety records of any
chemical. This is primarily the result of stringent handling and use guidelines
established by the Chlorine Institute in Washington, D.C. Although the swimming
pool industry only accounts for less than 5% of all chlorine used, these
guidelines from the Chlorine Institute do cover swimming pool treatment
applications. Any chemical that is either mishandled or improperly used is
dangerous However, since residentially-applied gas chlorine is available only to
specially trained firms who have to comply with strict safety standards; and,
since these firms use relatively small amounts of the product, gas chlorine does
not represent a significant hazard.
Myth #5: Gas chlorine is used as a deadly war gas.
No. Gas chlorine was briefly tried as a war weapon during World War I, but
was quickly replaced as such because it was ineffective for the use. It
dissipated too fast, was neither toxic nor persistent enough to do the desired
damage to troops, and its effects were too easily remedied. It was therefore
quickly replaced by more toxic and effective compounds. In fact, pure gas
chlorine was later used in training because troops exposed to it suffered no
lasting damage... they recovered quickly and could learn from the experience of
relatively benign gas exposure without suffering lasting damage from it.
Myth #6: Gas chlorinators maintain chlorine levels that are too
Please bear with us, because this one gets a little more technical. Total
chlorine is a combination of free chlorine and combined chlorine. In pool
applications, combined chlorine, or chloramine, is an irritant (to swimmers) and
a retardant (for the chlorine's effectiveness) and is therefore an unwanted
form. Free chlorine (which for pool purposes includes stabilized, or cyanurate
chlorine) is the desired sanitizer, and as dictated by pH is further subdivided
into free active (HOCl) and free passive (OCl-) chlorine. Free active chlorine
is the effective sanitizing agent in the disinfection process, and the passive
form is a reserve for when the active form gets used. Most gas chlorination
services maintain pH levels between 7.8 and 8.2. At this level, 20 to 30% of the
total chlorine is both free and active. When chlorine is added to the pool on
the service day, the initial addition creates a superchlorination, or shock
effect in the pool. This is a beneficial way of removing any combined chlorine
or impurities in the water. Any chlorine used during this process is said to
have satisfied the "chlorine demand" of the water. Any remaining chlorine then
becomes free chlorine waiting to be used and is referred to as the chlorine
residual. This residual can be thought of as a "bank" of available chlorine in
the form of free active and passive chlorine. The active is ready to kill
bacteria and algae, and the passive replenishes the active. The amount of
chlorine added is carefully calculated to insure that an adequate residual
remains for protection until the next service day. At no time is there an unsafe
condition of too little sanitizer, and other than a short (20-30 minute) period
while blending, at no time is the water unsuitable for enjoyable
The levels of chlorine maintained in this process have been
carefully studied, calculated, and documented to achieve the maximum benefit for
the pool and swimmers. The fact that chlorine levels fluctuate is true, and this
"shock & residual cycle" is maintained intentionally as a benefit. Studies
document that constant low-level dosages of chlorine without regular
superchlorination is a recipe for chloramines and ineffective sanitization. The
NSPI recommends superchlorination at least every other week, and weekly when the
water is warm. In general, a gas chlorinator superchlorinates weekly in the
summer. Periodic superchlorination is a routine that all pool professionals and
most pool owners recognize as a necessary practice, particularly in summer
months. Superchlorination coupled with adequate chlorine residuals, in
conjunction with proper pH and alkalinity balance, represents better water
disinfection, not problems.
So what are the advantages of gas chlorination?
Chlorine has actually been one of the most beneficial chemicals used in the
world, not only through its use in water purification, but also through its use
in the production of necessary medicines and disinfectants. A world without
chlorine would be a world with typhus, dysentery, and cholera. Our world with
chlorine is a much nicer, more sanitary place. Gas chlorine is the most
efficient method of treating water, and it is the only pool sanitizer that does
not add salts, additives, or inert ingredients to water. Harmful bacteria and
fungi are effectively destroyed, along with algae infestations. The use of gas
chlorination by a qualified service company completely negates the handling and
storage of dangerous pool chemicals in or around the home.
How do I select a gas chlorine company?
POOL CHLOR is the company that originated the residential gas chlorine
process. We have been using it since the 1950's, and have been maintaining tens
of thousands of pools for close to four decades with sparkling success. Our
references include membership in the National Spa and Pool Institute (NSPI), the
National Association of Gas Chlorinators (NAGC), and the Chlorine Institute. Our
operation is fully licensed with the EPA, with the proper site establishment and
product registrations. In fact, POOL CHLOR was the first pool company ever to be
able to make that claim. POOL CHLOR'S service area, with the same high quality
service and product, ranges from California to Texas. Please feel free to give
us a call for any additional information you desire relative to the benefits of
using pure gas chlorine in your pool.
Notes from industry experts:
"If properly applied or administered in accordance with the Chlorine
Institute and all other applicable codes and regulatory requirements, gas
chlorine is a viable, effective pool sanitizer/oxidizer and has no greater
potential for pool damage than any other chlorine sanitizer." The Plasterer's
Council, an industry trade association affiliated with the National Spa and Pool
Institute, Southern California Chapter
"We have no reason to believe that gas chlorine has any more of an adverse
effect on solar blankets than any other sanitizer, assuming all other factors,
i.e. pH, total alkalinity, etc. are maintained at generally prescribed levels."
Cantar Corporation, a manufacturer of "blue bubble" solar blankets
"We have many Polaris' working in pools with all commonly used chemicals,
including those serviced by chlorine gas without problems being caused to the
Polaris." Polaris Pool Systems
"When administered properly, there is no discernible difference between gas
chlorine and other forms of chlorination on the Kreepy Krauly unit." Kreepy
FILTERS: TYPES AND CAPABILITIES
Some of the most commonly asked questions regarding pool filters are: What
kinds are there? What are the differences? Is one more efficient than another?
When installing a new filter or replacing an old one, which filter do you
recommend that I use?
We offer the following information to answer these questions and hope that
it may be helpful to you in understanding the issues and our
The outside of this type of filter is usually made out of fiberglass or
stainless steel, and it is partially filled with silica sand. As water
circulates from the pool through the filter, water enters at the top and
percolates downward, leaving most of the oils, debris, and other impurities
trapped in the sand, thus allowing clean water to return to the pool. The filter
is usually backwashed once per week, a process which reverses the flow of water
through the filter. This lifts most of the contaminants from the sand and washes
them out the backwash line, along with a volume of water. Eventually the filter
becomes overburdened from minerals in the water and from the volume of debris
(dirt, dead algae and bacteria, etc.) remaining in the sand, causing the sand to
be hard and compacted. This reduces water flow throughout the system, and can
cause cloudy water, poor heater operation, and increased wear and tear on the
pump. Approximately every 3 to 5 years the old sand will need to be removed, and
new sand added. If the pool is painted, the sand may need to be changed
annually. The efficiency of the sand filter, as measured by the largest-sized
particle that can pass through it without being caught, is 40-50 microns. (A
micron is a millionth of a meter.) In the past, more sand filters have been
installed in some areas because of the supposed "ease of use" for the pool
owner, but drawbacks of the sand filter include: Longer hours of operation are
required to properly filter the pool water Filtration efficiency (compared to
other types of filters) is inferior, especially in hot climates Higher chlorine
levels are usually required on pools with sand filters to help reduce the risk
of the pool water turning green Because of frequent high-flow backwashing, this
type of filter wastes more water Since homeowners rarely see the inside of the
filter, and since the sand usually lasts for years, maintenance on sand filters
is frequently neglected
Cartridge filters come in various sizes and shapes. Most of the filter
canisters (or tanks) are stainless steel, but some are made of a hard plastic or
fiberglass. There may be as few as one or as many as fifteen or more cartridge
elements inside a cartridge filter. The cartridge elements are cylindrical, and
made of a paper-like fiber. As the water passes through the elements, impurities
are collected on the element material. Cartridges remove smaller debris from the
water than sand; its micron rating is about 20 microns. This filter is cleaned
about once a week by removing the elements from the canister and hosing it off
using a high pressure nozzle . Drawbacks for the cartridge filter include: Most
cartridge filters are for smaller pools and spas containing approximately 12,000
gallons of water or less There is no mechanical method for backwashing these
filters - it must be done by manually disassembling the filter and hosing it off
weekly The cartridge elements need to be replaced as they become old and worn:
about every 2 years, which can be expensive, depending on the size, style and
brand of cartridge Pools with cartridge filters tend to develop high dissolved
solids levels (TDS) faster than sand or D.E. filters, because there is no water
removal via backwashing
D.E. (Diatomaceous Earth) Filters:
The majority of D.E. filters are made of stainless steel, with a few being
made of fiberglass. The elements inside consist of a series of plastic grids
covered with a cheesecloth-like fabric. A white powder, known as D.E., is added
through the skimmer and mixes with the water as it heads toward the filter. As
the water passes through the filter, the D.E. powder coats the outside of the
elements. This coating traps microscopic impurities which cannot be trapped by
sand or cartridge filters, and therefore provides better water clarity in the
pool. The efficiency rating of a D.E. filter is about 3 microns. This means you
can filter anywhere from 15% to 50% less per day, which results in reduced
electric bills, and extended motor life.
Especially in drought areas, D.E. filters are most commonly recommended and
installed because of the lower water requirements for cleaning (compared to the
Drawbacks for the D.E. Filter:
To clean this type of filter, the filter must be taken apart in order to
hose the elements off with water. Each time you backwash, or clean the grids,
you need to re-charge the filter by adding two to four pounds of the D.E. powder
(which is very inexpensive) through the skimmer. However, since modern D.E.
filters can go as long as 6 months to a year between cleanings, this is not much
of a drawback! Older D.E. filters usually are cleaned quarterly.
Summary and Recommendation
If you pose the questions at the start of this bulletin to someone who
doesn't regularly maintain swimming pools, you might receive a wide range and
variety of answers. But if you ask a trained service technician who services
pools daily, and who is responsible for the cleanliness of your pool and the
clarity of the water, you will consistently hear the same answer: D.E. filters
(Diatomaceous Earth) are the best! If your filter is working fine, there is
obviously no need to replace it, but if you are faced with the need to install a
new filter or replace an old one, please consider the following points:
All three types of filters are used within the pool industry. The warmer the
pool water becomes, the more efficient the filter needs to be. Sand and
cartridge filters work best in cooler climates, but in the western states, where
pool water temperatures often reach the 90's, they aren't nearly as effective as
D.E. filters. The cost differences between the sand and D.E. filters are
minimal, with cartridge filters being the least expensive. If you are looking
for dollar value without headaches, the D.E. filter will give you that and more!
A D.E. filter requires less time and effort to maintain in optimum working
condition. Although most problems experienced by sand and cartridge filter
owners are caused by improper maintenance, even a perfectly maintained cartridge
or sand filter cannot match the efficiency of a D.E. filter. As measured by the
size of particle it can remove, a D.E. filter is 7 times more efficient than a
cartridge filter, and 15 times more efficient than a sand filter. A D.E. filter
is the best choice for those who must keep the pool clean and clear, for those
who swim in the water, and for those who enjoy the look of sparkling, crystal
clear water in their backyard pool.
"BLUE BUBBLE" SOLAR COVERS
"Blue bubble"-type solar covers are becoming increasingly popular for
residential swimming pools. They provide "free" solar heat from the sun, as well
as keeping some of the seemingly ever-present dirt and debris from getting into
your pool. With proper care and use, they are an excellent investment. In this
bulletin we would like to review some issues related to the use, care, and life
of this type of cover.
Solar covers can increase the temperature of the pool by 10 to 12 degrees,
depending on the amount of direct sunlight on them. During the coldest part of
the winter this may not be enough to make the water swimmable, but used in
conjunction with a gas or solar collection unit, it can provide substantial cost
savings. During the marginal swimming periods, in early spring and late fall,
this 10 to 12 degree difference can be enough by itself to make the pool water
Follow the manufacturer's instructions regarding storage of your pool cover
when it is off the water surface. Most warranties specify that they be stored
out of sunlight, and that they not be left on the cool-deck when removed from
the pool. Note that Pool Chlor folds back a portion of the cover, as opposed to
pulling it up on the deck, when servicing the pool; and then recommends that it
be left that way for an hour. We will not pull it up onto the cool-deck because
of the warranty concern: the concentrated heat reflected by the deck can weaken
the cover material. If the cover is to be left off the pool for extended periods
of time, use the opaque plastic bag provided with the cover, or use large, dark
plastic garbage bags to protect the cover from the ultraviolet rays of the sun -
a known cause of cover deterioration.
Avoid the temptation to use the cover as a dirt barrier by simply covering
the pool and leaving it covered for the entire winter. The use of a pool cover
in this way seems to provide a psychological justification for skimping on the
cleaning and brushing of the pool. However attractive it may sound, if you leave
the pool covered for extended periods of time you will uncover the pool in the
spring to find rough, discolored plaster. Putting a barrier between the water
and the air deprives the water of gasses it usually maintains in a dissolved
state (such as CO2). This deprivation is conducive to scaling. To avoid this
problem, make sure to expose your pool surface to the air for a number of hours
on a regular basis - one full day (8 to 10 hours) a week is usually sufficient
to restore the dissolved gas balance.
Years ago, bubble solar covers cost hundreds of dollars and lasted half a
decade. Now, covers typically cost less than 100 dollars, and last 1 to 1«
years. Do they make them like they used to? No. Due to an extremely competitive
market and the proliferation of low-cost low-end covers featured in retail pool
store sales, covers are now made of thinner, cheaper material than the "good
stuff" they used to be made of. This is not an indictment of cover
manufacturers, but a description of market economics. As a result of this
change, warranty periods have been reduced, and covers just don't last as long.
One manufacturer we talked to said that he could make covers as thick and
long-lasting as he used to, and fully warrant them for 5 or more years; but he
also said that the price for such a cover would be around $500 - much more than
pool owners would be willing to pay. Realistically, the solar cover you purchase
today will cost about $60 to $100 depending upon the size of your pool. The
cover life, based upon one year would be calculated as COST divided by 12; If
the cover lasts longer than the year, consider it a bonus. When you consider an
amortized monthly cost of between $5 and $8 per month for the added value of
water conservation and solar heating, you will still find these covers to be
quite useful. The prorated warranties on solar covers are not a guarantee of how
long the cover will last, but rather a means for the seller to insure your
continued purchases of their covers, since the small prorations are typically
not given out in cash, but taken off of the cost of the new cover. Essentially,
the modern solar cover is a throwaway item. Although today's covers look similar
to the covers sold ten years ago, they are quite different. The trade-off in
price for the new cover also is a trade-off in overall life and durability.
There is a limited warranty on all bubble style solar covers sold on the
market today. Although there are a variety of terms available (for example, one
year full, two years prorated, etc.,) essentially the warranty covers defects in
workmanship - not product deterioration. Although details vary, virtually all
such cover warranties, regardless of the manufacturer or length of warranty,
come with three types of disclaimers that effectively nullify the manufacturer's
liability for collapse or disintegration of the plastic cover. These three
disclaimers address the adverse effect of NORMAL chemistry and temperature on
1. Warranty disclaimed if chlorine level is above 1 ppm
There are many variables involved in the chemistry of chlorination. Limiting
the technical chemistry to a discussion of water disinfection, the 1 ppm
parameter virtually disclaims any pool in the Southwest. Chlorine demand can and
usually easily exceeds 1 ppm; there are no references to the relationship of
free chlorine to combined chlorine nor ionization ratios of the chlorine
molecule in relation to pH factors. The addition of liquid, granular, tablet, or
gas sanitation products will cause a proportionate and dramatic increase in
chlorine levels. All chlorinating compounds disassociate into exactly the same
disinfecting agents, regardless of the method or form of application. There are
no chemicals that represent greater hazards than others. In the real world the 1
ppm level is unrealistic and does not conform with accepted standards for pool
sanitation, since at a normal pool operating pH between (7.5 and 8.0) and in the
presence of stabilizer, (conditioner or cyanuric acid), the actual free chlorine
needed to sanitize the pool is only 15 to 40 percent of the total chlorine
reading. Thus, there would never be enough chlorine to even meet the minimum
Health Department standards.
2. Warranty disclaimed if water temperature exceeds 88 degrees
The gradient heating effect of a solar blanket will invariably cause the
layer of water immediately below the cover to be the hottest level, resulting in
temperatures that also exceed this parameter.
3. Warranty disclaimed if cover is stored in ultraviolet light
Ultraviolet light is a component of sunlight!
The cover manufacturers are not trying to rip off the buyer. They are simply
providing a legitimate warranty against defects in workmanship, not normal
product breakdown given the application. Unfortunately, many distributors are
unaware of the limits of the disclaimers and the focus of the warranty on
workmanship. If you check your solar cover, you will find it to be made of
either 4, 6, or 8 foot sections, seamed together. The average warranty actually
covers the workmanship involved in the heat seaming of the cover sections, not
the deterioration of the cover over a specific time.
Again, you can maximize the life of your cover by: A) Folding back or
removing it when the chemicals are applied, B) whenever you remove your cover,
be sure to cover it and not leave it unprotected in sunlight, and C) if your
water temperature exceeds 88 degrees, remove the cover. Also, you can protect
the surface of your pool by allowing the water to "breathe" at least one day a
week, thus replenishing the dissolved gasses in the water and avoiding a
potential "scale promoting" condition.
"We have no reason to believe that gas chlorine has any more of an adverse
effect on solar blankets than any other sanitizer, assuming all other factors,
i.e. pH, total alkalinity, etc. are maintained at generally prescribed levels."
Cantar Corporation, a manufacturer of "blue bubble" solar blankets
Red irritated eyes, sometimes in conjunction with dry, itchy skin, are an
occasional occurrence in some swimming pools. There are a number of possible
explanations for the irritation when it occurs, some of which are actual
causative factors and some of which are popular misconceptions.
The most popular misconception about eye irritation is that it is caused by
excess chlorine. The most common actual causes of eye irritation are chloramine
buildup, pH imbalance, high total dissolved solids, or a combination of those
Chloramine is a chemical combination of ammonia and chlorine. Although
chlorine is a desired component in pools, ammonia is unnecessary and unwanted,
since by combining with the chlorine it slows down the chlorine's activity
(i.e., the length of time it takes for the chlorine to oxidize contaminants).
Also, chloramine is an irritant to eyes, skin, and other parts of the body. An
unsavory aspect of pool chloramine is its origin: the ammonia in pool water is
usually a result of sweat, spit, mucous, urine, bird droppings, dog wastes,
vegetation (tree leaves, pine needles, pollen, etc.) blown into the pool, lawn
and garden fertilizers accidently introduced to the pool, and even from some
types of pool chemical algaecides. As a result of the unfortunate source of
swimming pool ammonia, the chloramine is not only irritating and slower acting
than pure chlorine, it also has a distinctive "rotten chlorine" odor. This odor
is the source of the misconception that too much chlorine is the cause of the
irritation. You may have noticed this odor when walking into some health clubs
or other indoor pool areas. This can be attributed to decreased air circulation
(compared to outdoor pools), the high use (leading to less frequent
superchlorination because of difficulties in scheduling "down time") and a
larger source of organic waste (because of the heavier bather load).
Another characteristic of chloramine is that it changes in composition
relative to the pH of the water. The lower the pH, the more of an irritant the
chloramine becomes. Since low pH in and of itself can be an irritant (as noted
below), low pH in conjunction with chloramine is even worse.
The cure for chloramine is to add enough of an additional oxidizer to burn
out the ammonia. This process can be accomplished with more chlorine - roughly 7
to 10 times as much chlorine as ammonia. This process is referred to as
superchlorination, or breakpoint chlorination (the addition of chlorine to the
point that it breaks the chloramine bond and destroys the ammonia...).
Alternatively, non-chlorine oxidizers such as the oxygen-based shock chemicals
(potassium peroxymonosulfate or monopotassium persulfate) may be used.
Another cause of eye irritation is low (acidic) pH. Since the eyes are
protected by fluid (tears), the altering of the chemistry of that fluid affects
the eyes. An example of this principle is the use of alkaline eye drops to ease
tired, irritated eyes. Eye irritation caused by low pH can be remedied by
properly balancing the alkalinity and pH levels in the pool. Low pH can also
cause irritation to the ears, nose, throat, and other mucous membranes.
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
A third causative factor for eye irritation in swimming pools can be a high
level of dissolved material in the pool. An acceptable amount of total dissolved
solids (TDS) may be as low as a few hundred parts per million (ppm) and as high
as 2000-3000 ppm. When levels exceed 3000 results may include eye irritation,
cloudy water, and difficulties in maintaining water balance. Meters are commonly
used to measure the TDS of a pool, but a do-it-yourself test is to simply open
your eyes underwater. Pool water with excess TDS may be crystal clear when
looking at the water from above, but when you open your eyes underwater it is
usually turbid (cloudy or hazy). (Note that turbidity that is visible even when
viewed from outside the pool is usually caused by inadequate filtration or
unbalanced chemistry.) If you suspect high TDS, call Pool Chlor for TDS testing
of the water, and request technical bulletin #7 for more information.
Eye irritation, whether caused by chloramine, low pH, high TDS, or other
factors (or combinations of factors) is both preventable and curable. Although
extended swimming may irritate eyes, irritation that occurs after only short
periods of swimming need to be investigated and remedied. If you experience such
irritation, give us a call and we will determine the cause and prescribe a
One of the most disconcerting experiences a plasterer can have is when he
does what seems to be a perfectly good job of plastering a pool, only to be
called back out to find that the plaster had developed calcium nodules (see
sidebar on Terminology). Although in times past some have attempted to associate
nodules with the general chemistry of the pool water, research has shown that
the cause of nodule formation is cracking (from over-drying of the plaster) or
bond failure (aka delamination), which occurs primarily in replastered
Plaster and Water
In order to understand the process of nodule formation it can be helpful to
consider what happens when you first fill a plaster pool with water. As the
plaster hydrates (cures) chemical reactions take place which result in the
release of soluble calcium into the pool water. This calcium, in the form of
calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), has a very high pH, which in turn raises the pH of
the entire body of water in the pool. The soluble calcium hydroxide reacts with
bicarbonate (HCO3- ... part of the pool's alkalinity ...) in the water and
converts to a non-soluble form called calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which is
precipitated throughout the pool in a powder commonly referred to as plaster
dust (see chemical reactions sidebar). The plaster dust is brushed and filtered,
removing it from the pool. Calcium that still resides in the water once normal
pH levels are achieved tends to be calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HCO3)2), another
soluble form of calcium.
Hollows in the Plaster
In spite of the best care a plasterer may take, there are times when
cavities or voids are present in the plaster. These voids may be the result of
shrinkage cracks, hollows between fixtures and plaster, or the lack of a good
bond between the plaster and the underlying base material. (This lack of bond is
referred to as delamination or bond failure). Delaminated areas can be small
(2-3 inches in diameter) or very large (3-4 feet or more - see picture). If the
void is never exposed to water, the sequence for creating a nodule stops. If,
however, water can enter the void through a connecting path (usually either a
crack or pinhole, depending on the shape of the delamination and the nature of
the flexural force involved), the sequence continues. Depending on when the path
is opened, voids in plaster may become filled with water as soon as the pool is
filled, or they may not fill with water until months or years have passed. Voids
may even develop after time, if delamination occurs due to ground shifting or
other extraneous forces.
Regardless of whether the void is filled with water immediately or down the
road, the process of hydration will occur inside the void just as it did out on
the face of the pool when it was new. Only this time the calcium hydroxide is
temporarily trapped, allowing it to concentrate - creating a strong, localized
body of the material from which a nodule can be made. But it then travels out to
the main body of water in the pool where it can react with alkalinity to
transform into calcium carbonate. Where does this conversion to non-soluble
calcium occur? In our plaster dust example, the conversion occurred uniformly
over the entire surface of the plaster, resulting in a uniform fall-out of
plaster dust throughout the pool. In the case of super-saturated calcium water
oozing out of a pinhole, the conversion occurs just as it exits the void and
enters the pool, i.e.: on the plaster surface of the pool.
How Fast Does It Squirt Out?
The answer to that question seems to determine whether or not a nodule
forms. If the supersaturated water squirts out fast enough, a small amount of
plaster dust will form beyond the exit hole, and will disperse into the pool
water. This amount is little enough that it is not noticeable. If it oozes out
very slowly, it may even solidify in the hole and plug it up. If the speed is
just right (or wrong...), it will form a nodule around the exit hole.
What about those who claim that "aggressive water" causes nodules?
It is instructive to consider the case of pools that have been acid washed
or subjected to the acid start-up procedure. These pools often have had enough
muriatic acid added to expose the plaster to a pH of 4.5 and alkalinity level of
0 for over a week. In both cases, the plaster has a better appearance afterwards
than before, yet the resultant surfaces do not have any greater propensity
towards nodules following the acid wash.
What Can Be Done To Avoid Nodules?
The best methods to avoid nodules are nothing new: prepare the surface
properly to insure a good bond, use the correct amount of each component of the
plaster, mix and apply it correctly, and allow it to hydrate and cure normally.
The critical failures include:
weak bonds between the plaster and the subsurface (which explains why
nodules are more prevalent in replaster work) over-accelerated drying resulting
in excessive cracking of the plaster allowing the pool plaster to become too dry
from extended periods or hot periods of the pool not being filled with water
ground shifting too slow of filling in a new plaster pool, resulting in
shrinkage spike holes or other such "artificially created" cavities
Surface preparation and compatibility of new coatings to existing surfaces
is crucial to many other applications besides pool plaster. Anyone who has spent
hours or days removing old varnish from furniture or old paint from the eaves of
your house prior to repainting is familiar with the concept. Those who are even
more familiar with surface preparation are those who have failed to properly
prepare the surface, or to ensure compatibility of a new paint with the
Bonding plaster to fresh gunite is rarely a problem because there is a
chemical bond (where curing plaster chemically "locks on" to curing gunite) in
addition to a mechanical bond (where the fresh plaster fills in the
intentionally rough surface of the fresh gunite). The "new plaster to old
plaster" and the "new plaster to old gunite" combinations are much more
difficult. This is because in these situations no chemical bonding is likely,
due to the fact that the old plaster or gunite is already thoroughly cured or
hydrated. This fact has given birth to companies manufacturing, distributing,
and instructing plasterers on the use of additional chemical bonding
How Can I Remove Existing Nodules?
If there is not an excessive number of nodules, our experience is that the
best way to treat a nodule is to let it exhaust itself normally. Just as plaster
dust formation stops when the normal amount of calcium cures out of the surface,
a nodule will cease growing when a proportional amount of calcium cures out of
the void. A nodule can be scraped or sanded from the surface, and will only
continue to reappear until all of the calcium from the source has been
exhausted. Sometimes one removal will suffice, and other times it takes 2, 3, or
more removals. The number of times it regrows and the size of the growth can be
an indication of the amount of plaster surface inside the void.
What If There Are Too Many?
There comes a point when there are just too many nodules in certain pools,
and more drastic action must be taken. These (rare) cases are usually the result
of excessive cracking of the surface, or of extensive bond failure in the pool.
When this happens the nodules are actually an indication of much more serious
problems that would justify replastering the pool.
Whose "Fault" Is It?
One of the biggest stumbling blocks in the industry today is the
fingerpointing that is done in trying to assign blame. The fact of the matter is
that, like many other phenomena that are common in cement applications, nodules
are not always preventable. Good technique on the part of the plasterer, along
with sound bonding principles will eliminate the vast majority of nodules, yet
the appearance of a few is not unexpected (especially on replaster jobs) and are
easily dealt with.
This phenomenon has variously been referred to as calcium
growths, nodules or nodes, spores, and effervescence. Despite the term used, the
result is the same: a localized, raised concentration of calcium carbonate,
either in the classic "volcano" configuration or in the "stalactite" drip,
emanating from a crack or a pinhole in the plaster.
The Effect of pH on Calcium
Calcium in pools tends to differing forms depending of the pH of the water,
as the chart illustrates:
11 hydroxide (soluble)
9 carbonate (non-soluble)
1. Under normal conditions, the plaster (white) is
bonded to the gunite substrate (speckled), which in turn rests on dirt (tan).
Calcium hydroxide bleed-off from the plaster surface dilutes into the pool water
(blue) and is converted to both non-soluble calcium carbonate (plaster dust) and
soluble calcium bicarbonate. Continuous "rinsing" of the hydroxide bleed-off by
the circulating pool water, as well as normal pool maintenance (such as
brushing), prevents a buildup of high pH material on the plaster surface.
2. Sometimes, an air cavity can be formed between the gunite and the plaster.
This is referred to as "delamination" and the cavity is referred to as a "void."
As long as the void is not connected to the surface of the plaster, the fact
that the void even exists may not be known. Unless the plaster completely breaks
free from the surrounding plaster, creating what is referred to as a "pop-off,"
or unless the delamination is extensive, this is not considered by the plaster
industry to be a defect.
3. In some cases, however, the void is connected to the surface by a small
pinhole or hairline crack. Pinholes and cracks are created from structural
flexing of the delaminated plaster. The type and size of resulting hole or crack
is dependent on numerous factors, including the size and shape of the
delamination, the nature of the structural flex, the strength and thickness of
the plaster over the delaminated section, etc.
4. Gradually, water from the pool penetrates the void via the hole or crack,
and creates a localized chemistry environment completely separate from the water
balance in the pool. As calcium hydroxide bleeds into the void water it creates
a calcium-rich, high pH solution like a little "calcium/pH factory" beneath the
plaster surface. The pinhole or crack is not of sufficient size to create a
rinsing effect like that going on at the plaster surface.
5. Calcium-rich void water and bicarbonate-rich pool water, in contact with
each other at the plaster surface, react with each other and seek equilibrium,
which results in the production of an insoluble calcium carbonate
6. If the conditions are right, this insoluble calcium carbonate can build up
a "slag pile" around the exit point, thus forming a nodule.
Algaecides, although not a necessity, can be a useful tool in the
maintenance of an algae-free swimming pool. They do not replace the sanitizer
(chlorine), but are like an "insurance policy" in that they can step in and
inhibit algae growth even if the chlorine demand (amount of chlorine required to
destroy algae, bacteria, and other contaminants in the pool) exceeds the amount
of free available chlorine. The most common types of algaecides are the
quaternary ammonium or "quat" algaecides and the metal algaecides (the most
common of which contain copper).
One of the problems with algaecides is that in too high of concentrations
they can cause complications that you as a pool owner would prefer to avoid.
Another problem is that, other than noting the amount you put in the pool, it is
difficult to measure the actual level of algaecide in the water. Poolside test
kits exist for some types of algaecides, but not for all - and those test kits
that do exist can be awkward and time consuming to use.
Quat algaecides have an attraction for the surface of algae plants, and can
coat the plant sufficiently to suffocate it. The recommended dosage for most
quat algaecides is 2.0 to 4.0 ppm.
It can be effective in controlling algae It does not evaporate
It becomes more active when water temperatures increase It concentrates on pool
It affects the water surface tension, making it more difficult
for chlorine to combine and stay in solution It has its own chlorine demand -
meaning that there is an increase in the amount of chlorine required to maintain
a residual when quat compounds are present Over-dosing can cause excessive
foaming, a soapy feeling, cloudiness, and a rapid loss of chlorine D.E. and sand
filters absorb quats, increasing the need for careful and continuous maintenance
Copper algaecides have been used since the early 1900's, and work by making
it difficult for algae to eat or breathe.
It can be effective in controlling algae It does not evaporate
It becomes more active when water temperatures increase It concentrates on pool
Although most modern copper-based algaecides contain a chelated form of
copper which is less likely to deposit than normal copper in the water,
over-dosing can cause blue-green copper sulfate staining of the plaster
One of the most common stains found in swimming pools and spas is from iron.
Iron staining results from a depositing of ferrous oxide (rust) on the interior
surfaces of the pool.
The color of iron staining ranges from a light yellow to a darker brown
color. The color intensity will vary depending on the amount of iron present,
the source of the iron, and the type (color, porosity, etc.) of material it
deposits on. The patterning of the deposits vary, but typically iron deposits
where the most porous plaster is in certain areas of the pool where there is
the least amount of calcium deposited in the past where the greatest amount of
calcium is depositing currently in the areas of the pool least affected by
circulation where the brushing and/or automatic pool cleaner spends the least
amount of time
Unfortunately, this staining pattern is very similar to the patterning of
dirt stains (i.e.: dirt that has sat on the same spot long enough to affect the
coloration of the plaster, and to be fixed in place by calcification). The
easiest way to distinguish between dirt stains and iron stains is to examine the
plastic components of the pool: the return outlets in the pool, the inside of
the skimmer, the plastic parts of an automatic pool cleaner, etc. Since iron has
a greater affinity for plastic than for plaster, when iron staining is present
there is almost always a brown film on the plastics. Dirt does not cause this
There are many sources for iron in a swimming pool, the most common of which
source water provided by the water utility (the water used to "top off" the
pool) galvanized or other iron-based pipe in the pool filtration system
galvanized or other iron-based pipe in the source water system spilled lawn and
garden fertilizer with iron components
Contamination from source water and/or iron-containing home piping can be
determined by lab analysis of the tap water used to fill the pool. Fertilizer
contamination usually requires direct knowledge of the event by the person who
applied the fertilizer. Iron contributed by the filtration system is usually
detectable by examining the piping itself. The most common locations for this
piping are either the pipe leading immediately into and out of the pump, and the
pipe leading immediately into and out of a heater. If iron pipe is threaded
directly into other metals (such as copper, bronze, or brass) then water flow
over this join will form a mild electrical field and de-plate the galvanized
pipe (which is the weaker of the two metals). It is common on older pools where
galvanized pipe was used in conjunction with a bronze pump to be able to remove
the hair/lint strainer (pump pot) lid and see iron corrosion in the galvanized
nipple, which then "drips" into the pump cavity. This is why galvanized pipe is
usually avoided in newer or more expensive pools.
It is rare to actually get an iron reading in properly balanced pool water,
since proper oxidation of water forces iron out of solution. Pools which are not
regularly and properly chlorinated (including pools which only receive low-level
chlorination through a feeder but no periodic "burning out" of contaminants) may
contain dissolved iron, but this iron will deposit as soon as the first proper
oxidation of the pool water occurs.
Iron deposits may be removed in many different ways. Without draining the
pool, there are chemical methods of stain removal which may or may not work
depending on the severity and chemical composition of the stain. A topical
application can tell you whether this method will work in your pool. The stains
may also be removed by draining the pool and acid washing/sanding the pool. You
would want to consult a professional plaster or service company for a
consultation and estimate if this course is considered.
Iron deposits may be avoided (or at least the rate of deposition may be
slowed) by the use of a chelation/sequestering chemical. Your Pool Chlor service
technician can provide you with further information about this product.
Chelation/sequestering chemicals are also available at local retailers, usually
labeled as "stain preventatives".